THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Lantana camara, also known as “Spanish Flag” or “West Indian Lantana”, is a species of flowering plant in the verbena family, Verbenaceae that is native to the American tropics. It has been introduced into other parts of the world as a ornamental plant and is considered an invasive in many tropical and sub – tropical areas.
It was brought to India some 80 years ago from South America, which has become exotic and spread to different regions of the country. All the parts of this plant are traditionally used for several ailments. Leaves of the plant are antiseptic, antitumoural, and antimicrobial whereas, roots are used in the treatment of malaria, rheumatism, and skin rashes. Selected microorganisms are responsible for several ailments in human beings viz. E. coli and P. mirabilis are known to cause diarrhea, urinary tract infections and sepsis, while major cause of nosocomial, suppurative infections and food poisoning is S. aureus. Similarly, candidiasis is caused by C. albicans and T. mentagrophytes is known to cause dermatophytosis.
Lantana camara is considered to be a voracious and poisonous weed, as it spreads rapidly and chocks the native vegetation, spoils animal habitats, biodiversity, leads to shortage of fodder for herbivores, and exerts toxic effects when ingested by livestockhence L. camara is regularly eradicated by the villagers. However, present study
advocates its uses by pharmaceutical industries for preparing plant based antimicrobials drugs, rather than to throw the eradicated plants as garbage.
The methanolic extract of Lantana camara leaves shown healing of gastric ulcers and also prevents development of duodenal ulcers in rats. Extracts of the fresh leaves are antibacterial and are traditionally used in Brazil as an antipyretic, carminative and in the treatment of respiratory system infections.
This study was conducted in order to determine the efficacy of lantana camara flower and leaves extract on cockroach.
Statement of the Problem
This study will determine the Efficacy of the Flower and Leaves of Lantana camara on cockroach.
Specifically, this study will answer the following question:
What is the effect of lantana camara leaves and flowers extract on cockroach?
Is there a significant difference between the leaves of lantana and the commercial insecticide on cockroach?
Is there a significant difference between the flowers and the commercial insecticide on cockroach?
Is there a significant difference between the flowers and the leaves on the commercial insecticide on cockroach?
Objective of the Study
The study aims to determine the Efficacy of the Flower and Leaves of Lantana camara on cockroach.
It aims to:
To determine the effect of lantana camara leaves and flowers extract on cockroach.
To determine if there a significant difference between the leaves of lantana and the commercial insecticide on cockroach.
To determine the significant difference between the flowers and the commercial insecticide on cockroach.
To determine the significant difference between the flowers and leaves extract on commercial insecticide on cockroach.
The following hypothesis will be tested in this study:
There is no significant difference between the leaves of lantana and the commercial insecticide on cockroach.
There is no significant difference between the flowers of lantana and the commercial insecticide on cockroach.
There is no significant difference between the flowers and leaves extract on the commercial insecticide on cockroach.
Significance of the Study
This study on efficacy of the flowers and leaves extract of Lantana on cockroach can be an additional contribution in the field of Biology because it will offer an alternative medicine for costly prepared drugs and make use of this plant that is widely distributed in the province.
This plant, Lantana camara will help people living in remote areas that have no financial access to purchase commercial insecticide in drug store.
The procedure or processes that will be discovered in this study will encourage of a new product from Lantana camara flower and leaves that is easy to administer and cost effective and when properly prescribed and used have advantage of being relatively free of side effects.
Scope and Limitation of the Study
The experiment was performed in order to determine Efficacy of lantana of leaves and flowers extracts. Lantana camara is locally known as lantana will be collected in Brgy. Dalakit, Catarman N. Samar.
This study was conducted during the month of January under laboratory condition at the Research laboratory Room of the College of Science, University of Eastern Philippines, University Town, Northern Samar.
This study was limited to the determination of the efficacy of lantana flowers and leaves extract.
Definition of Terms
For purposes of clarity, the following terms are defined and explained to indicate how they are used in the study continually and operationally.
Commercial insecticide it is an insecticide used for extermination and control of many household pests and is very effective for crickets, roaches, ants, carpenter ants, spiders, silverfish and others. In this study it will be used as the positive control
Efficacy is the effectively of leaves and flowers extract to produce an effect on the experiments.
Extract is a portion of the mixture that is being dissolved and later separated from the solid part or flow the solvent, and the flower and leaves will serve as an extract.
Filtration is a process of separating the solid and liquid component in the mixture using the cheesecloth and filter paper.
Insecticide in this investigation, refers to juices extracted from flower, leaves and commercial insecticide and will be sprayed to kill or control insect pest which is the intention of this study; it is ability to poison or kill insects.
Lantana camara – is the scientific name of lantana, the experimental plant in this study and is used to test the effect of its extract.
Periplaneta americana is the scientific name of cockroach, it is common on household pests. In this study refers to the insecticide.
Plant extract connotes to the juice taken from the blender for blending and mortar and pestle and squeezing by the hand to get the pure extract.
Positive control refers to the commercial insecticide (baygon) that will be used in this study in order to compare the effects of the plant extracts on test insect.
Spray refers to the method to be used in applying the plant extracts to cockroach insect pests using hand-held sprayer.
Solution refers to the homogeneous of a solute or suluks (dissolved materials) dispersed uniformly in a solvent.
Toxicity is the term used when a substance contain active component that cause effect to the experimental insect.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
Lantana is a highly variable species. It has been cultivated for over 300 years and now has hundreds of cultivars and hybrids. Cultivars can be distinguished morphologically (variation in flower in size, shape, and color, leaf size, hairiness and color, stem thorniness) physiologically (variation in growth rates, toxicity to livestock). The life form, size lifespan is two to five meters tall shrub, erect in the open and scrambling in scrubland. Propagation, the fruit is dispersed by furgivorous birds. It is capable of surviving all but the hottest fires regenerating from short stem (Thaman, 1974)
The crude extract of pink lantana (Lantana camara L.) flower is toxic against cotton stainer ( Dysdercuscingulatus). It is non toxic however, to common cutworm ( Spodopteralitural) and corn borer (Astriniafurnacalis). The isolated active principle from the flowers and leaves of lantana caballero
( Caeselpiniapulauneria) and wild sunflower (Titchoniadiversifolia A. Gray) is volatile oil. The fromppink lantana is toxic against cotton and fever grain, borer (Rhizopentadominica). The black asmyworm is likewise, susceptible to the soil from yellow caballero flower and leaves and yellow lantana flowers. The active principles are alkaloid, through the seeds of pink lantana are non – toxic against cotton stainer. The
principle probably is a flavonoid, from the lantana flowers contains six to eight constituents as monitored by layer chromatography ( Morallo-Rejesus and Tantengco, 1986)
Lantana camara is native to South Texas and tropical America. It grows well in dry, sunny location and provides land color over a long period. Lantana will grow in sandy soil near the cost where most other plants are severely damaged by the salt. In Northern part of the region, lantana should be treated as annuals.
Lantana camara is standing or half climbing shrub with sided branches and is aromatic. Its branches have picked. The leaves are ovate, pointed at the tip rounded at the base, and toothed in the margins. The flowers vary in color pink, orange, yellow white, etc. formed in stalk head. It is found throughout the Philippine propagated by stem cutting (Padua, 1990).
Flowers of lantana are bi – color mixtures of yellow, red, pink, white and orange. They resemble small verbenas in size and form. Native types seem to be more cold – hardy and are reability perennial than most of the hybrids. “New Gold” is probably the most popular cultivar available. Golden yellow flowers occur prolifically from late spring to late fall. It is low reaching about “18 tall and 2 wide”. The reason “New Gold” blooms profusely is because it rarely sets seed. It is semi – trailing in form.
Flowers: Flowers yellow, orange, red, pink, purple, white or a combination of these. Flower heads terminal, to 3 cm wide; flowers most of the year; variable sprawling thicket – forming perennial shrub to 5 m high and many meters wide or climbing to 15 m
high. Leaves mostly 7 cm long to 4 cm wide, opposite, upper surface wrinkled and with rigid short hairs, lower surface often hairy, margins toothed. Leaves exude unpleasant odor when crushed. Fruit green at first, repining black 1 – seeded. Seeds, yellow – brown to 4mm long.
Lantana overgrowing an abandoned plantation is Sdei Hemed, Israel. Some species are invasive and are considered to be noxious weeds, such as in South Asia, Southern Africa and Australia. In the United States, lantanas are naturalized in the southeast, especially coastal regions of the Carolinas, Georgia, Florida, and the Gulf Coast where the yellow and orange variety is often known as “Ham and Eggs”.
The spread of lantana is aided by the characteristics of their leaves, which are somewhat poisonous to most animals, while the fruit is a delivery for many birds which distribute the seeds. Birds like the yellow – fronted white – eye of Vanuatu, the superb fairy – wren in Australia, or the Mauritius Bulbul in the Mascarenes thus unwittingly contribute to the degradation of their home economics.
Although lantanas are generally hardly, and being somewhat toxic, are usually rejected by herbivores, they may still become infested with pests. However, pest control insecticide soaps are harmful to these plants.
Though the stems even of larger lantanas are thin, the wood is very tough and durable and thus useful for various handicraft such as wicker work.
The Soliga of Karnataka (India) is nowadays utilizing lantana in their wicker craft. The plant is an invasive weed there, and has displayed much of the bamboo which formerly was the preferred material for Soliga Artisans. By selectively harvesting lantanas for their craft, they are again able to make a living, as well as assisting the recovery of the native eco system and reducing the risk of wildfires.
Distinguished by colorful Flower heads composed of tubular flowers, to 12 mm long; recurved thorns on young stems of some varieties; stems 4 – angled at first but becoming round with age.
Spread mainly by bird – dispersed seed. Also spread by stems touching the ground and developing shoots and roots (adventitious roots).
Baygon it is an insecticide used for extermination and control of many household pests and is very effective for crickets, roaches, ants, carpenter ants, spiders, silverfish and others.
American cockroach (Periplaneta Americana), also known as the waterbug, or palmetto bug, particularly in the southern United States, is the largest species of common
cockroach and often considered a pest. None of the Periplaneta species are endemic to the Americas despite the name; P. Americana were introduced to the United States from Africa as early as 1625. They are now common in tropical climates because human activity has extended the insect’s range of habitation, and global shipping has transported the insects to world ports including the Southern United States, Tenerife, Southern Spain, Greece, Taiwan and Cape Town and Durban, South Africa.
American cockroach adults grow to an average length of around 4 centimeters (1.6 in) and about 7 millimeters (0.28 in) tall. They are reddish brown and have a yellowish margin on the body region behind the head. Immature cockroaches resemble adults except that they are wingless. The insect can travel quickly, often darting out of sight when someone enters a room, and can fit into small cracks and under doors despite its fairly large size. It is considered one of the fastest running insects. In an experiment carried out at the University of California, Berkeley in 1991, a Periplaneta americana registered a record speed of 5.4 kilometers per hour (3.4 mph), about 50 body lengths per second, which would be comparable to a human running at 330 kilometers per hour (210mph). it has a pair of large compound eyes each having over 2000 individual lenses, and is very active night insect that shuns light.
American cockroaches generally live in moist areas, but can survive in dry areas if they have access to water. They prefer warm temperatures around 29⁰C (84⁰F) and do not tolerate cold temperatures. In residential areas, these cockroaches live in basements
are common in basements, crawl spaces, cracks and crevices of porches, foundations, and walkways adjacent to buildings. The American cockroach is a scavenger that feeds on decaying organic matter and a variety of other foods. It is particularly fond of fermenting foods.
Due to their large size and slow development, large infestations of these insects are not common within houses. However, during certain times of the year, the cockroaches may move inside a house from outside. In cold weather these cockroaches may move indoors, seeking warmer temperatures and food. Cockroaches may enter houses through sewer connections, under doors, around plumbing, air ducts, or other openings in the foundation. Cockroach populations may be controlled through the use of insecticides.
Study conducted by Longcop (2003), the larvicidal efficacy of Lantana berries extract was studied under laboratory condition on the larvae of Musca domestica based on the two factors “the different concentration of lantana berries extract (90909.0909090909 ppm, 826.462809 ppm and 751.3148009), and different periods of exposure time ( 8 hours, 16 hours and 24 hours). RCBC analysis was used in the determination of the lethal concentration (LC50), the amount lantana berries pure extract that can kill fifty percent of the test larvae. Result of the study showed that the concentration of the lantana berries extract and the longer the time of exposure the greater is the mortality of the larvae. Probit analysis showed that the LC50 were 351 85421.25
ppm. 11516.294228 ppm and 62.20759 ppm at 8 hours and 24 hours exposure time respectively.
According to Medrano (2003), the different concentration levels of Noni Fruit extract can have a depressant and stimulant effect on the experimental animals. T1 (100 % concentration) of Noni Fruit extract showed neuromuscular toxic properties, causing lethality to the experimental mice. However, vital organs were also affected after the administration of the different concentration levels of Noni fruit extract, the heart became cyanotic, stomach became flattened with white spots in its fundus portion, and liver was spotted white. The neuromuscular and morphological effects of Noni Fruit extract are relatively comparable to the effects of diazepam (+) control.
According to Cerenado (2006), the toxic effect of the 100% level concentration of the “kalatsutsi” stem and leaf extract is similar to the effect of the dog shampoo after 1 hour and 30 minutes exposure time, while the 75% and 50% concentration have lesser acaricidal effect; the negative control, which is water, had no acaricidal effect. The toxic effect of the different concentration levels of the “kalatsutsi” stem and leaf extract have no significant difference but the toxic effect of the leaf extract have significant difference when compared with the dog shampoo the mites that were scraped from the skin of the skin of the dog were sarcoptes scabie var.
According to Camposano (2010), ticks assigned to Treatment 1 and IV (100% concentration levels and dog shampoo), died one hour after exposure to the test substances, while the treatment 11 and 111 ( 75% and 50% concentrations) have lesser
effects; and the negative control, which is water, had no effect. The toxic effects of the different concentration levels of the combined madre de cacao and kalatsutsi leaves extract have significant difference when compared to the distilled water (Treatment V) but the toxic effects of the leaves extracts have no significant difference when compared with the dog shampoo. The ticks that were collected from the infected dog were the Rhipicephalus sanguineus or the brown dog ticks.
Locale of the Study
This study was conducted in the Research Laboratory Room of the College of Science, University of Eastern Philippines. The collection of Lantana plant will be done in Brgy. Dalakit Catarman, Northern Samar.
The plant samples of Lantana were bringing to the Research Laboratory Room of the College of Science, University of Eastern Philippines.
This study will follow the experimental design under laboratory condition. The researcher selected this research design because this study involves the procedure method including the control or manipulation of condition or purpose of studying the relative effects of various treatments applied to test animals.
The experimental followed the Complete Randomized Design (CRD). CRD is most appropriate design in order to determine the efficacy of Lantana leaves and flower extract on cockroaches.
The CRD of different treatment of Lantana camara flower and leaves extract and the positive control will be tested in this experiment. Each treatment will be replicate three (3) times. This will be distributed following the experimental layout in figure 1.
R1 R2 R3
T = Treatment
T1 = Leaves of Lantana
T2 = Flowers of Lantana
T3 = Commercial insecticide
T4 = Negative control
Figure 1. The experimental layout following the RCD.
Processing/extracting of the Lantana and flower Extract
Flowers extract. 200 ml of flowers is needed in this study, the extract were prepared from the flower of Lantana. A blender was used to make the sample finer and to get the maximum amount of five extract. The ground materials were put in the cheesecloth squeezed in order to get the extract and with a series of filter papers it was filtered after until clean filtrate was obtained. Then it was placed in amber-colored bottles with cover
and was stored in the refrigerator, and was opened only upon the administration to the test insect.
Lantana leaves. These were prepared from the Lanta camara leaves. A blender was used to make the sample finer and to get maximum amount of 200 ml pure extract of Lantana leaves. Then it was filtered with a series of filter papers until a clean filtrate were obtained. The extract were placed in amber-colored bottles and stored in the refrigerator, and was opened only upon the administration to the test insect.
Preparation of Positive and Negative Control
A commercial insecticide such as Baygon will be used as the positive control in compare to the Lantana leaves and flower extracts.
Distilled water will be used as the negative control to compare the Lantana flowers and leaves extract.
Examination of Cockroaches and Administration of the Lantana leaves and Flower Extract
In the Laboratory, the cockroaches were distributed to the different cages with different replicates following the experimental layout in Figure 1. Administration of the Lantana leaves and flower extract were done using four (4) different hand sprayers were the extracted of Lantana leaves and flower, commercial insecticide and distilled water was transferred. Each treatment will be used seven (7) cockroaches in every three (3) trials. There will be 200 ml used by spraying.
Data Gathering Procedure
After exposing the cockroaches to the Lantana leaves and flower extracts, close observation will be made during 4 hours and the following data will be recorded.
Number of dead and alive cockroaches.
Statistical Treatment of Data
%〖F/N x 100〗
% = Percentage
F = Frequency
N = Number of subject
ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) at 0.05 levels of significance was used in this study to show the significant differences between treatments.
Source of Variation Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares Mean Square Computed Value Tabular Value Interpretation
Flowchart of Activities
To guide the researcher for the systematic or step-by-step of the experiments, the flowchart of laboratory activities will be made to avoid mistakes in the work.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Effect of Lantana camara Leaves and Flower extract on Cockroach
Mortality Rate of Cockroach in Different Treatments at 4-hour Exposure period.
Treatment Replicates Total Average Mortality
R1 R2 R3
Treatment 1 (Leaves) 4 5 6 15 5
Treatment 2 (Flowers) 7 6 5 18 6
Treatment 3 (Commercial Insecticide) 7 7 7 21 7
Treatment 4 (Negative Control) 0 0 0 0 0
Presented this table is the average mortality on cockroach in relation to different treatments. T1 obtain 5% mortality. T2 has 6% mortality, T3 had 7% and T4 obtained o% mortality.
Table 1 Frequency distribution of the effects of lantana camara leaves and flower extract on cockroach
Effects Frequency Percentage
Death 54 85.7%
Immobile 5 7.9%
Mobile 3 4.8%
Alive 1 1.6%
The experimental revealed that the different plant extracts had insecticidal effects and has cause death to cockroach. The efficacies of different plant extracts were determined. The total number of dead, immobile, mobile, and alive cockroaches in 4-hour exposure period was divided by the total number of cockroach used in the three (3) replicates at the time and multiplied by 100.
Table 1 shows the frequency distribution on the effects of the different plant extract. Out of 84 experimental insects treated with different treatments 54 (87.7%) were dead, 5 (7.9%) were immobile, 3 (4.8%) were mobile, while 1 (1.6%) were still alive.
Figure 2. Graphical presentation on the effects of the different
treatments on cockroach.
Death Immobile Mobile Alive
Figure 2 presented the effects of the different treatments on cockroach. It support the data in Table 1, which shows that the common sign of the effects of different treatments on cockroach was death (54), followed by the immobility (5) of the cockroach, next is being mobile of the cockroach (3) while the least common is being alive of the cockroach.
The table and figure indicate that the different treatments have lethal effects on cockroach which can be alternative insecticide.
Table 2.The Difference between the leaves of lantana and the commercial insecticide
Between Treatment T-Tabular Value T-Computed Value Interpretation
T1 vs. T3 -2.353 -2.15 Not significant
Table 2, shows that the t-computed value of -2.353 at .05 level of significance with 2 degrees of freedom, the null hypothesis is being accepted which implies that there is no significant difference between the leaves of lantana and the commercial insecticide.
Table 3.The Difference between the flowers of lantana and the commercial insecticide
Between Treatment T-Tabular Value T-Computed Value Interpretation
T2 vs. T3 2.920 -1.29 Not significant
It can be observed in the Table 2, shows that the t-computed value of -1.29 is less than the tabular value of 2.920 at.05 level of significance with 2 degrees of freedom, the null hypothesis is being accepted which implies that there is no significant difference between the flowers of lantana and the commercial insecticide against cockroach.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This study was conducted last February 2012 in order to determine the efficacy of different treatments of lantana flowers and leaves extract on cockroach. The researcher tried to produce organic insecticide. Specifically, this study determined; if there was significant difference between the leaves of lantana and the commercial insecticide on cockroach; if there was a significant difference between the flowers of lantana and the commercial insecticide on cockroach; if there was a significant difference between the flowers and the leaves on the commercial insecticide on cockroach.
This study was conducted at the Research Laboratory Room at the College of Science, University of Eastern Philippines during the school year 2011-2012. This study followed the experimental design under laboratory condition to carry out the objectives of the study. The experimental tool used in this investigation was Completely Randomized design with four (4) treatments replicated three (3) times. Each treatment had 7 cockroaches following the experimental layout.
A pure extract of leaves was done using a blender to make the sample finer and the flowers were done by pounding. Cheesecloth and was squeezed to take the extract out and with a series of filter paper it was filtered until filtrate was obtained. The cockroach
was observed immediately after the administration of test substance, observation lasted for 4-hours.
The insect were trapped in separate cages of 12 x 24 inches in sized. The cockroach were exposed to experimental substances for a period of 2-hour. The test substance was administered using (4) different hand sprayer each contains 200 ml of extracted leaves and flowers extract, the commercial insecticide and distilled water. Each cages was sprayed six (6) times with the test substances.
To test the insecticide effect of cockroach, the t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. Results of the study revealed that the pure extract of flowers and leaves had a insecticide effect and has cause death to the cockroaches.
The test animals were should death, immobility, mobility and alive after the test substance was administered. The T3 (positive control) caused a hundred percent morality which means that these substances has killed all the cockroach, T2(flowers) has 6 % mortality rate, T1 (leaves) only 5% mortality rate while distilled water did not kill any of the test insect.
The efficacy of the extract (flowers and leaves) has comparable effects to the commercial insecticide and can be used as an alternative insecticide.
Based on the results of the study, the following conclusions were drawn.
The pure extract of flower and leaves had insecticidal effects which cause death on cockroach.
The pure extract of experimental plant has comparable effect to the commercial insecticide.
There is no significant difference between the leaves and the commercial insecticide on cockroach.
There is no significant difference between the flowers and the commercial insecticide on cockroach.
There is no significant difference between the flowers and leaves on commercial insecticide on cockroach.
Since the study revealed that leaves and flowers have insecticidal effect under laboratory conditions, a field study must be conducted to test its efficacy to correlate them with the laboratory outcomes.
Another study must be conducted, but other methods of processing of the plant extracts must be explored.
Further studies using either flower or leaves extract to kill cockroach.
A chemical analysis of the leaf must be conducted in order to determine the active ingredients which cause death to the experimental insect.
b. Other Sources
Computation on the insecticidal effects of different treatments on cockroach.
〖SS〗_1=Σx_1 ²- (Σx_1 )²/n_1
= 239- 110.25
SS1 = 128.75
〖SS〗_2=Σ2_2 ²- (Σx_2 )²/n_2
SS2 = 0
Table 4. Different Between Treatment
Source of variation Degree of freedom Sum of Squares Mean Squares F – Value
k-1 2 202.13 101.07 1.80 5.79
Within Group No. Significant
(N-1)-(k-1) 5 280.74 56.03
Total N – 1 7 482.87